The tourists were reeling at 142 for eight in their second innings at close on day three, needing another 63 runs to avoid an innings thrashing.
The 18-year-old Taylor hit a resolute 141 but failed to help his side avoid follow-on after being dismissed for 324 in their first innings in reply to Pakistan Cricket Board Patron's XI 529 for nine declared.
In the second innings Taylor fought hard for his 16 at number six but failed to survive the dying moments in fading light.
Earlier resuming at 187 for four, Zimbabwe were saved from total disaster by Taylor's hundred whose 356-minute vigil fetched him 141 studded with 21 boundaries and a six.
Taylor's previous best first class score was 82.
A valiant last wicket stand of 45 between Graeme Alexandar Cremer (26 not out) and Tawanda Mupariwa (16) brought the tourists to within 56 runs of avoiding the follow-on but in the end they failed.
Pakistan prospect Riaz Afridi took 3-63 with Rao Iftikhar, Yasir Arafat and Wasim Khan chipping in with two wickets apiece.
Following on, Zimbabwe lost wickets at regular intervals with only opener Dion Ebrahim putting any real resistance with 37. Alestar Maregwede with 30 and Mark Vermeulen at 26 were other notable contributors.
Afridi, Arafat, Iftikhar and leg-spinner Mansoor Amjad took two wickets apiece.
Zimbabwe is in Pakistan to feature in a One-day tri-series, also involving Sri Lanka, from September 30 to October 16.
Zimbabwe was forced to choose an inexperienced squad following a rebellion by 15 white players, including captain Heath Streak in April this year.
Since then they lost 10 One-day games to Sri Lanka and Australia which prompted the International Cricket Council (ICC) to suspend their Test status until the end of this year.