The flamboyant Kambli counter-punched his way to an unbeaten 68 in 89 balls (11x4) to lift Mumbai from 87 for 5 to 171 for 5 at stumps.
When umpires Francis Gomes and K G Lakshminarayanan called off play with 6.4 overs left because of poor light conditions, Kambli was unbeaten after a stay of 140 minutes along with Agarkar, who was not out with 37 (62 balls, four fours and a six).
The two had put on 84 runs in 19.2 overs for the unbroken sixth wicket and helped Mumbai finish the day 84 runs adrift of MP's first innings total of 255.
Kambli entered the scene when the hosts and reigning champions were gasping at 38 for three and he saw two more wickets fall before Agarkar joined him to pull Mumbai out of the hole with some fine batting.
The hosts were rocked by a three-wicket burst from first change bowler Sunil Dholpure who sent back well-set opener Wasim Jaffer (22), Amol Muzumdar (6) and Wilkin Mota (9) after the early damage had been done by new ball bowlers S Pandey and Shantanu Pitre.
Earlier, resuming at the overnight 164 for 7, MP kept the hosts on the field for the entire first session of two and a half hours before being dismissed 16 minutes after lunch. Nikhil Patwardhan remained unbeaten on 80 after a stay of 340 minutes.