Batsmen Chris Rogers, with 95, and Marcus North, with 70, had set the home team up for a big score at 230 for three midway through the day on Sunday.
But Western Australia then slumped -- adding only 137 more runs for the loss of four wickets after tea to finish on 306-7.
Queensland won the toss and sent Western Australia in to bat on a scorching day at the Western Australian Cricket Association Ground in Perth.
The match marked Rogers' return following surgery for shoulder and hamstring problems.
He notched up 95 runs after being dropped by Queensland captain Jimmy Maher at second slip for 47 shortly after lunch and edging a sharp chance to Adam Nye at gully when he was on 90. He was caught at square-leg by Nathan Hauritz five runs later.
Joe Dawes was the pick of the Queensland bowlers with 4-83 while Shane Watson, with 2-45, also helped Queensland's cause.
Queensland wicketkeeper Chris Hartley, who is replacing the injured Wade Seccombe, finished the day with five catches.
In Perth (day one): Western Australia 306 for 7 (C. Rogers 95, M. North 70; J. Dawes 4-83, S. Watson 2-45) versus Queensland.