Cullen claimed 5-78 in an impressive spell of finger-spin bowling but the Queenslanders reached 257 for eight at stumps on day two with Craig Philipson unbeaten on 64 on Friday.
Cullen picked up four straight wickets as Queensland slumped to 161 for seven before Philipson and Ashley Noffke steered Queensland towards stumps before Noffke (14) holed out to Darren Lehmann.
South Australia were earlier dismissed for 143 to give Queensland first innings points.
Victoria's hopes of a quick kill in their must-win match against Tasmania were put on hold as the visitors denied the home side on day two at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG).
While Victoria, who declared their first innings at 477 for eight, held the upper hand, they were frustrated by Tasmania's batting resistance.
Tasmania reached 158 for three at stumps after Jonathan Moss had Michael Di Venuto (23) out lbw in the penultimate over.
Michael Bevan (51 not out) took his season aggregate past 900 runs with another half-century.
Brisbane (day two): Queensland 199 (C Perren 58, A Bichel 47 not out, L Steves 46; S Tait 4-61, P Rofe 3-44) and 257 for 8 (C Philipson 64 not out, M Love 35; D Cullen 5-78) v South Australia 143 (G Blewett 41, R Harris 32; A Noffke 3-22, J Dawes 3-39, A Bichel 3-52).
Melbourne (day two): Victoria 477 for 8 declared (B Hodge 140 not out, M Elliott 89, C White 75, J. Arnberger 60; A Griffith 6-124) v Tasmania 158 for 3 (T Birt 57, M Bevan 51 not out; J Moss 2-7).