The West Indians open the Australian summer series with the Brisbane Test on November 3, followed by other Tests in Hobart starting on November 17 and in Adelaide from November 25.
South Africa play a three-Test series against Australia in Perth (December 16-20), Melbourne (December 26-30) and Sydney (January 2-6).
Sri Lanka will then arrive to play in the triangular One-day series, also featuring Australia and South Africa, starting on January 13 with Australia playing Sri Lanka at Melbourne's Docklands stadium.
Australia have already been confirmed to play the Rest of the World in three One-dayers in Melbourne and a Test match in Sydney in October.
This year's Chappell-Hadlee Trophy One-day matches will take place in New Zealand from December 3-10, following the inaugural series in Australia last December.
Brisbane will host Australia's first-ever international Twenty20 fixture, where Australia will play South Africa in a match that is expected to fill the redeveloped Gabba to its new capacity of 42,000.
Tasmania will stage its first Test match since Australia played New Zealand in Bellerive in 2001 and next season's match will be the West Indies' first Test in Hobart.
CA said that due to preparations for the Melbourne Commonwealth Games next March, the Boxing Day Test will be the only international cricket match to be played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground next summer, with the ground's redevelopment expected to be near completion at that time.
All other Melbourne international matches will be played at the 50,000-capacity Docklands stadium.
"We're very excited to announce the program for what we expect will be a fantastic summer of cricket," CA chief executive James Sutherland said at the official announcement.
"The Johnnie Walker Super Series (Rest of the World) will provide the perfect entree for our season, when the world's best cricketers assemble in Australia to participate in what we expect will be an enthralling series.
"With Sri Lanka and South Africa currently being the second and fourth-ranked One-day teams in the world respectively, we're confident the VB (One-day) Series will be tough and highly entertaining for fans."