The brilliant all-rounder aggravated a chronic elbow injury during his team's net practice in preparation for Monday's start of their three-day tour match against Western Australia at the WACA Ground.
A scan on Kallis' left elbow -- first injured during South Africa's recent tour of India -- showed that there was a slight tear and some inflammation of a lateral tendon.
South African physiotherapist Shane Jabaar said medical staff hoped Kallis, currently the number one Test batsman, could be fit to play in the team's second three-day tour match, against a Western Australian XI, starting at the University of Western Australia on Sunday.
The first Test against Australia starts at the WACA Ground on December 16.
Kallis's absence meant wicketkeeper Mark Boucher took over as captain for the match against Western Australia with regular captain Graeme Smith also out with an injured finger.