Dorey, 28, is the leading wicket-taker in the domestic Sheffield Shield competition this season with 26 wickets at 23.26 and has taken seven wickets in five domestic One-day matches.
Glenn McGrath is back in the squad for the series, which starts on January 13 with Australia playing Sri Lanka at Melbourne's Docklands stadium.
McGrath, 35, was rested for last month's Chappell-Hadlee Series in New Zealand.
Batsman Damien Martyn also returns after recovering from a finger injury, replacing Brad Hodge.
Dorey replaces Mick Lewis and all-rounder James Hopes comes in for leg-spinner Cameron White.
Left-arm quick Mitchell Johnson has been omitted.
Australian chairman of selectors Trevor Hohns said the inclusion of Dorey was part of a focus on next year's World Cup in the Caribbean.
"Brett is an exciting prospect who has good height and is able to generate good bounce," Hohns said.
Hohns said White, Lewis, Hodge and Johnson were still in line for World Cup spots.
"With the return of McGrath, Martyn and Hopes it just wasn't possible to find room for everyone and the view is now firmly on preparing for the World Cup in 15 months' time," Hohns said.
Australia - Ricky Ponting (captain), Adam Gilchrist, Nathan Bracken, Stuart Clark, Michael Clarke, Brett Dorey, Brad Hogg, James Hopes, Michael Hussey, Simon Katich, Brett Lee, Damien Martyn, Glenn McGrath, Andrew Symonds.