After winning the toss, the hosts opted to bat at the Chittagong Divisional Stadium and looked ill at ease from the start of the two-Test series.
Two quick wickets from Sri Lankan leg-spinner Malinga Bandara reduced Bangladesh to 84 for three at launch, before Shahriar Nafees was bowled by Farveez Maharoof on 27 in the second session.
Khaled Mashud (three) was not out with Ashraful when the umpires called play off for tea.
Opener Javed Omar (four) was removed by fast bowler Lasith Malinga to the fifth ball of the morning when he was caught by Thilan Samaraweera in the slips.
Captain Habibul Bashar joined Nafees Iqbal for a partnership of 72 before Bandara broke the stand by bowling Iqbal for 34. He also trapped Bashar lbw on 29 the following ball.
Muttiah Muralitharan, who is five wickets shy of 1,000 test and One-day wickets, bowled 18 overs and gave up 54 runs.