Spectators threw missiles on to the field and set advertising hoardings on fire after umpires Rudi Koertzen and Jayaprakash decided that no play would be possible due to ground conditions following overnight rain.
"I am disappointed that there was no match today. But if such things (crowd violence) happen, Guwahati might not have a game again," South African umpire Koertzen said on Sunday.
India have already clinched the seven-match series after winning the first four games.
Thousands had begun packing into the stadium since the morning and a section of the crowd grew restless as hopes of even an abbreviated match vanished. They then attacked policemen with water bottles and sticks.
The authorities had even pressed a helicopter into service in an attempt to dry the ground, but to no avail.
Guwahati is the main city in the restive northeastern state of Assam and the players were given tight security.
The sixth One-dayer will be in Jamshedpur on Wednesday.