Gilchrist leapfrogged his teammate and captain Ricky Ponting as well as Dhoni thanks to his performances in the three-match series in Bangladesh, during which he made 108 runs in the two matches he played.
The left-hander now holds a slender three rating point advantage over Dhoni, who assumed the top position from Ponting for the first time less than two weeks ago.
Ponting's modest series in Bangladesh has seen him slip to third in the list but Gilchrist, by contrast, is now just short of his highest-ever tally of rating points.
Australia now has an incredible four players in the top five of the Rankings for ODI batsmen with Gilchrist and Ponting joined by Andrew Symonds and Michael Hussey in fourth and fifth spots respectively.
Symonds has his best-ever haul of rating points while Hussey has entered the top five for the first time. Michael Clarke, in 11th position, is another highly-placed player in the batting list while Simon Katich, in 28th spot, also has a career-high total of rating points.
With the ball, Pathan is now in second in rankings behind Shaun Pollock of South Africa while Australia's highest-ranked player is Glenn McGrath, absent from the Bangladesh series for personal reasons, in fourth position.
Brett Lee is in sixth place while, next to him, is Nathan Bracken, up one spot to seventh and now just short of his highest rating. Also, on the up is left-arm spinner Bradley Hogg, the leading wicket-taker in the Bangladesh series, up five places and now into the top 20, in 17th position.
Australia's highest-ranked ODI all-rounder in the rankings is Symonds, in fourth position, behind Pollock, England's Andrew Flintoff and Pathan.
Bangladesh does not have a batsman in the top 50 places and left-arm spinner Mohammad Rafique is their top-ranked bowler, in 24th position.
Australia's 3-0 success in the series means it has retained its 13 point lead over South Africa at the top of the LG ICC ODI Championship table, with India a further three points back in third spot.
Bangladesh has dropped one rating point to 23 and remains in 10th position in the table.
Meanwhile, the seven-match clash between the West Indies and Zimbabwe will get underway in the Caribbean today. The two sides are currently in eighth and ninth places respectively in the Championship table and need to buck the recent trend that has seen them both struggle in this form of the game if they are to close the gap on the sides above them.
If the West Indies achieve a clean-sweep of the series they will improve their rating by two points to 91, just 12 behind seventh-placed England. But if Zimbabwe can win the series, it will close the gap considerably on the home side.
A 4-3 Zimbabwe win will see them rise nine rating points to 51 while dropping the West Indies to 79 while a 6-1 win for the African side will lift it to 57 points and drop West Indies to 74.
Brian Lara, recently re-appointed as the West Indies captain, will be making his first ODI appearance for the side since May last year, although he did play three matches for the ICC World XI in the Super Series against Australia in October.
The newly appointed skipper would also be anxious to improve on his current position in the rankings for batsmen as he begins the series in 33rd spot, one place below Chanderpaul.
Ahead of that duo are Ramnaresh Sarwan (13th) and Chris Gayle (17th) while the side's leading representative at the top end of the of the bowling list is Ian Bradshaw, in joint 15th spot alongside England's Andrew Flintoff and now just short of his highest mark of rating points.
The inexperienced Zimbabwe side is on a learning curve and, like Bangladesh, does not have a batsman in the top 50 while its top-ranked bowler is off-spinner Prosper Utseya, in 45th place and at his best-ever rating.
LG ICC ODI Team Rating: 1. Australia 132 2. South Africa 119 3. India 116 4. Pakistan 114 5. New Zealand 113 6. Sri Lanka 105 7. England 103 8. West Indies 89 9. Zimbabwe 42 10. Bangladesh 23 11. Kenya 7
Top 10 Batsmen: 1. Adam Gilchrist (AUS), 2. Mahendra Dhoni (IND), 3. Ricky Ponting (AUS), 4. Andrew Symonds (AUS), 5. Mike Hussey (AUS), 6. Graeme Smith (SA), 7. Kevin Pietersen (ENG), 8. Kumar Sangakkara (SL), 9. Rahul Dravid (IND), 10. Yuvraj Singh (IND).
Top 10 Bowlers: 1. Shaun Pollock (SA), 2. Irfan Pathan (IND), 3. Shane Bond (NZ), 4. Glenn McGrath (AUS), 5. Daniel Vettori (NZ), 6. Brett Lee (AUS), 7. Nathan Bracken (AUS), 8. Muttiah Muralitharan (SL), 9. Chaminda Vaas (SL), 10. Harbhajan Singh (IND)
Top five All-rounders: 1. Shaun Pollock (SA), 2. Andrew Flintoff (ENG), 3. Irfan Pathan (IND), 4. Andrew Symonds (AUS), 5. Shoaib Malik (PAK)