The news that Anderson was a major doubt for the entire three-Test series against Sri Lanka came just hours after fellow England quick Simon Jones's participation in next week's opener, starting at Lord's on May 11, was called into question.
The Welshman limped off with a knee twinge during Glamorgan's C and G One-day win against Ireland at Sophia Gardens.
Anderson has not played for his county, Lancashire, since his return from England's tour of India.
He is to see a specialist on Wednesday and could be out of cricket for at least several weeks.
"This is a huge blow for a player who has worked very hard and very long to get back into the One-day International and Test match environment," said Lancashire coach Mike Watkinson.
Jones has not played for England since the fourth Ashes Test win against Australia at Trent Bridge in August, a combination of ankle and knee problems ruling him out of the recent tours of Pakistan and India.
Glamorgan physiotherapist Chris Towers said he would monitor Jones's suspect left knee.
"We are liaising with the England medical team and will assess the position further after Simon has had a night's rest," Towers explained.
Jones, 27, the son of former England left-arm quick Jeff, has already been withdrawn from Glamorgan's County Championship match against Derbyshire starting at Cardiff on Wednesday.
His and Anderson's injuries came on top of the concerns England have over skipper Michael Vaughan (knee), spearhead fast bowler Stephen Harmison (shin) and left-arm spinner Ashley Giles (hip), none of whom are expected to be available for the Lord's showpiece.
England are due to name their first Test squad on Sunday.