Indian cricket board secretary Niranjan Shah said the Canadian Cricket Association had informed him that it was unable to organise the series in Toronto as planned.
"Canada has told us they can host a series only next year, they can't do it now," Shah told AFP on Friday.
There were also reports that the West Indies Players' Association had threatened to boycott the series because it had not been taken into confidence by the West Indies Cricket Board about the proposed matches.
Shah said the Indian Board was looking at alternatives, including possible contests against Australia or New Zealand in either the Netherlands or Asian venues like Singapore and Malaysia.
"We have received a lot of proposals and are considering it," he said. "Something will be worked out soon."
India seem determined to organise a One-day series in September to prepare for the International Cricket Council's (ICC) Champions Trophy it hosts in October-November.
The series against the West Indies was planned after India agreed to boost the coffers of the cash-strapped West Indian board by playing matches outside the ICC's official Test and One-day programme.
The series was seen in the media as India's way to thank the West Indies in their support for South Asia's successful bid to host the 2011 World Cup against a combined bid by Australia and New Zealand.
West Indian cricket officials on Friday added to the confusion by revealing they wanted to host India and Sri Lanka for a tri-series in January next year leading to the World Cup in the Caribbean in March-April.
A tri-series between the same teams is already scheduled to be held in India in January, but West Indian team manager Tony Howard hoped it would be held in the Caribbean.
"We are hoping to have it played in the West Indies, but it is not settled yet," Howard was quoted as saying in the Jamaica Observer newspaper.
"We are pitching for late January, about a month or so before the World Cup so that would be perfect preparation in the lead-up."