Gough won the last of his 156 One-day caps for his country last summer against Australia before opting out of selection for the winter.
And the player, who turns 36 next month, was overlooked at the start of the season but is included in a 30-man party - which will be cut to 14 by September 7 - along with injured trio Andrew Flintoff, Ashley Giles and James Anderson.
There are five uncapped players with Leicestershire fast bowler Stuart Broad, joined by Essex all-rounder Ravi Bopara, veteran Mal Loye, Durham's Graham Onions and Michael Yardy of Sussex.
All those who featured in the One-day whitewashing by Sri Lanka earlier this summer are reprieved aside from Worcestershire bowler Kabir Ali.
It was perhaps England's recent results - they have won just four of their last 19 completed matches - that persuaded the selectors to consider recalling Gough.
"Darren Gough has been a regular member of the Essex side this season and worked hard to overcome the knee injury which limited his county appearances last summer," said chairman of selectors David Graveney.
"He is performing well for Essex and I am sure he will be seeking to further impress the selectors over the next few weeks as will all the other pace bowlers in our 30.
"We have kept faith with the bulk of the squad who appeared against Sri Lanka as we feel there were encouraging individual performances in that series despite the disappointing results overall."
Flintoff's estimated recovery time from the ankle surgery he underwent late last month was 12 weeks but the selectors have been prudent in keeping their options open should he, Ashley Giles or Ian Blackwell make better than expected progress.
"We have included a number of players who are currently recovering from injury in this provisional squad: James Anderson, Ian Blackwell, Andrew Flintoff, Ashley Giles and Liam Plunkett," said Graveney.
"The medical advice we have received is that there is a good chance that they will be available for the tournament but we will need to review their progress before the squad has to be reduced to 14 on September 7."
Fast bowlers Anderson and Plunkett are likely to get run-outs for their counties before the end of the season.
Only those named in the initial 30-strong parties are eligible for a tournament viewed as a mini World Cup.
Meanwhile Graveney defended the decision not to include Monty Panesar in the squad.
Left-arm spinner Panesar has been a star performer for the Test side in the series against Pakistan, claiming 16 wickets in all and three for 39 in the second innings at Headingley as England won the series with a match to spare.
But he has not made the squad for the trip to India.
"I'll probably ring him to explain that the door is not completely shut but for him the best thing is if he concentrates on Test cricket," said Graveney.
"Let's see Monty bowl on different kinds of surfaces. He's done exceptionally well but he is the type of bloke who will keep his feet on the ground which is good because the Pakistanis still have a lot to play for."
Batsmen: Ian Bell (Warwickshire), Ravi Bopara (Essex), Alastair Cook (Essex), Ed Joyce (Middlesex), Mal Loye (Lancashire), Kevin Pietersen (Hampshire), Vikram Solanki (Worcestershire), Andrew Strauss (Middlesex), Marcus Trescothick (Somserset)
Wicket-keepers: Geraint Jones (Kent), Chris Read (Nottinghamshire)
All-rounders: Ian Blackwell (Somerset), Tim Bresnan (Yorkshire), Andrew Flintoff (Lancashire), Glen Chapple (Lancashire), Rikki Clarke (Surrey), Paul Collingwood (Durham), James Dalrymple (Middlesex), Alex Loudon (Warwickshire), Michael Yardy (Sussex)
Bowlers: James Anderson (Lancashire), Stuart Broad (Leicestershire), Ashley Giles (Warwickshire), Darren Gough (Essex), Stephen Harmison (Durham), Matthew Hoggard (Yorkshire), Jon Lewis (Gloucestershire), Sajid Mahmood (Lancashire), Graham Onions (Durham), Liam Plunkett (Durham)