Both the charges will be considered during a hearing to be conducted by ICC Chief Match Referee Ranjan Madugalle.
According to the ICC, Inzamam has been charged, as captain, with a breach of Level 2.10 of the ICC Code which relates to changing the condition of the ball in breach of Law 42.3 of the Laws of Cricket.
The charge was brought by the on-field umpires Billy Doctrove and Darrell Hair yesterday.
If Inzamam is found guilty of breaching this provision he faces a fine of between 50 and 100 per cent of his match fee and/or a one Test or two ODI ban.
The Pakistan captain was also charged, as captain, with a breach of C2 at Level 3 of the Code which relates to conduct that brings the player or the game of cricket into disrepute.
This charge was brought by the on-field umpires Billy Doctrove and Darrell Hair along with the third and fourth umpires Peter Hartley and Trevor Jesty following a meeting on this morning, the ICC said in a statement.
If Inzamam is found guilty of breaching this provision he faces a ban of between two and four Test matches or four to eight ODI matches.
In laying this charge the umpires made reference to the preamble to the Laws of Cricket which highlights the responsibility of the captain to ensure that play is conducted within the spirit of cricket as well as within its laws.
The ICC has provisionally appointed Madugalle to conduct the hearing as the Match Referee for the fourth Test, Mike Procter, was involved in the incidents that took place on yesterday afternoon and is likely to be asked to present evidence to the hearing.
If found guilty the penalties would apply with immediate effect subject to appeal which would have to be made within 24 hours of notification of the adjudicator's decision. If an appeal is made a player is permitted to continue to represent his country pending the outcome of the appeal.
Pakistan did not appear for the session after tea yesterday after they were penalised five runs for ball-tampering by the umpires and remained in the changing room when the umpires went out a second time 15 minutes later.
Later, England were awarded the match.