The Irish-born 28-year-old Joyce made his international debut in June in a limited-overs match against his country of birth and played a further two times in the shortened form of the game during the summer.
Joyce is a 'highly promising player', who could bat at a number of positions, said chief selector David Graveney
Trescothick returned home from Australia on Wednesday after a recurrence of a stress-related illness.
Joyce will join the rest of the England squad in Adelaide on Friday.
The 28-year-old southpaw will unlikely figure in the playing eleven for the opening Test in Brisbane unless one of the other batsmen on tour suffers an injury.
He was chosen ahead of Academy teammates Robert Key and Owais Shah, both of whom have appeared for England in Tests.
Joyce, who only qualified to play for England last year, averages 47 in first-class cricket and has 17 tons to his credit, including a highest score of 211 for Middlesex against Warwicks in July.
He has already been on one tour with England this winter, having been part of the Champions Trophy squad, but he did not play a single game in India.