Left-arm spinner Monty Panesar was called up to make his one-day debut while fast bowler Steve Harmison announced he was retiring from the abbreviated form of the game after being overlooked for selection.
Test wicketkeeper Geraint Jones also missed out with Chris Read and Leicestershire's Paul Nixon both picked ahead of him in a series of changes to the squad that failed at the Champions Trophy.
England's chairman of selectors David Graveney said a decision on the captain had been delayed until after the Ashes test series finishes in early January.
All-rounder Andrew Flintoff has been skippering the side during the Ashes in the absence of regular skipper Vaughan, who faces a fitness test before playing.
Flintoff told reporters after England lost the Ashes in record time that he wanted to stay on as captain despite concerns the added burden of leading the team had blunted his phenomenal skills.
"Michael Vaughan has been included in the one-day squad subject to fitness," Graveney said.
"He has made excellent progress with his recovery from injury but we feel that it would not be appropriate to announce the captaincy of the one-day side at this stage and will delay any announcement until after the test series."
The charismatic Panesar won selection after capturing eight wickets in his Ashes debut in Perth while England were forced to pick an extra wicketkeeper to cover for the loss of Marcus Trescothick, who walked out on the team before the opening test because of depression.
"Monty Panesar's experience of one-day cricket is limited but he has shown that he is comfortable on the international stage and we view his selection as a bold, attacking move which will strengthen our ability to take wickets," Graveney said.
"Marcus Trescothick has acted as reserve wicket-keeper on previous tours but, as he is unavailable, we have decided to include two wicket-keepers in this squad.
"Paul Nixon is a vastly experienced cricketer who knows his game inside out and will bring a great deal of energy to the dressing room.
"Paul has been very successful with Leicestershire in one-day cricket and he will compete for the wicket-keeping position with Chris Read."
Rikki Clarke and Michael Yardy were the only other omissions from the England squad that failed to make it past the first round of the Champions Trophy.
England will join Australia and New Zealand in a month-long one-day series starting in mid-January, with the top two teams advancing to the final.
James Anderson, Ian Bell, Paul Collingwood, James Dalrymple, Andrew Flintoff, Ed Joyce, Jon Lewis, Sajid Mahmood, Paul Nixon (wk), Monty Panesar, Kevin Pietersen, Liam Plunkett, Chris Read (wk), Andrew Strauss, Chris Tremlett and Michael Vaughan.