The Punjab and Haryana High Court sentenced Sidhu to three years jail in December after being found guilty of culpable homicide not amounting to murder.
His sentence was suspended to allow the popular TV host and commentator time to appeal to the Supreme Court.
After he surrendered to a lower court on Thursday, Sidhu was taken to jail in Patiala, his hometown in the northern state of Punjab, where he will remain in judicial custody for 14 days.
His appeal against his conviction comes up for hearing in the Supreme Court on Friday. "Sidhu has appealed his conviction before the Supreme Court, but Supreme Court rules require a convict to surrender before his appeal is heard, making it imperative for Sidhu to surrender," his lawyer, Satya Pal Jain, said.
Sidhu surrendered despite being on bail till Jan 31.
Before the court in Chandigarh, Punjab's capital, sent him to jail, the 43-year-old batsman told a crowd of reporters, onlookers and supporters he would accept whatever it decided.
"I surrender to the majesty of law, unconditionally."
Sidhu, also known as Sherry in cricketing circles, was involved in a car accident in Patiala in 1988. He got into a fight with the elderly occupant of the other vehicle, which led to the man's death.
He resigned as a federal lawmaker following his conviction on Dec. 1 last year. Sidhu, a Sikh, joined Bharatiya Janata Party and was elected to the lower house of parliament in 2004.
He amused millions of Indian cricket fans with his witticisms and controversial comments as a commentator.