There is a similarly bleak outlook for veteran pacemen Darren Gough and wicketkeeper Geraint Jones, who have both been excluded from the extended squad.
However all of the players currently on tour in Australia were picked, including left-arm spinner Ashley Giles, who returned home mid-way from the Ashes series Down Under to be with his ill wife and injured batsman Kevin Pietersen, who is being sent home after fracturing a rib.
After missing the Champions Trophy because of a stress-related illness, Trescothick was declared fit to play in the Ashes series and was duly selected.
However, he returned home after less than two weeks in Australia, again citing a form of depression for his sudden departure.
Despite the 31-year-old's experience and his strong record, selectors decided to leave him out of the World Cup and there must be grave doubts over his international future.
Four uncapped players were added to the squad as well as seven players that did not feature in England's ICC Champions Trophy squad, including captain Michael Vaughan and spinner Monty Panesar.
''We are eager to ensure everyone is given every chance to prove their fitness but we are not prepared to select players for this upcoming World Cup that we anticipate will not reach a satisfactory level of fitness for what will be a gruelling tournament,'' England's chairman of selectors, David Graveney said in a statement.
World Cup probables: James Anderson, Ian Bell, Ravi Bopara, Stuart Broad, Glen Chapple, Rikki Clarke, Paul Collingwood, Alastair Cook, Jamie Dalrymple, Andrew Flintoff, Ashley Giles, Matthew Hoggard, Ed Joyce, Amjad Khan, Jon Lewis, Mal Loye, Sajid Mahmood, Paul Nixon, Graham Onions, Monty Panesar, Kevin Pietersen, Liam Plunkett, Matt Prior, Chris Read, Owais Shah, Vikram Solanki, Andrew Strauss, Chris Tremlett, Michael Vaughan and Michael Yardy.