The opener, who'd been out for a duck in New Zealand's opening two victories against England and Kenya, made 101 and put on 142 for the first wicket with Kiwi captain Stephen Fleming (66).
Brendon McCullum later posted the fastest World Cup fifty, off 20 balls, with five sixes and one four as the minnows' attack suffered. He finished on 52 not out and Jacob Oram was 35 not out.
New Zealand's total was also a new ground record in one-day internationals, coming just two days after they'd posted the previous best here of 331 for seven against Kenya.
This was a 'dead' match, with New Zealand already through to the Super Eights and Canada unable to qualify for the second phase after losing to Kenya and England.
Vincent struggled early on against some fine outswing bowling from Anderson Cummins who exploited the early life in the pitch after Canada captain John Davison won the toss and fielded.
However, he got off the mark in fine style at the start of the third over when he lofted Cummins fof six over extra-cover.
Having survived some early alarms, both Vincent and left-hander Fleming started to open up.
New Zealand's skipper was severe on balls outside off-stump and when the attack strayed, happily whipped boundaries through mid-wicket.
Vincent too kept playing his shots and come the drinks break at 15 overs, the Black Caps were 99 without loss after seamer Henry Osinde's second over had gone for 16 runs, culminating in a hooked six from Fleming who'd earlier in the over had crashed two fours through the offside.
Then Vincent's cut four off left-arnm spinner Kevin Sandher for four, the second fifty taking just 29 balls.
Fleming then completed a 53-ball fifty with one six and seven fours, Vincent only marginally slower to the landmark in 55 balls with one six and six fours.
But his stand with Vincent ended in the 22nd over when Fleming chipped Sandher, making his World Cup debut, to Ian Billcliff at mid-wicket
Sunil Dhaniram had rocked England with a spell of three wickets for seven runs in 11 balls. But new batsman Peter Fulton, on his World Cup debut after coming in for the injured Ross Taylor, swept the left-arm spinner for a huge six.
However, having made a run-a-ball 47 and shared a stand of 80 with Vincent, was plumb lbw to Sandher to leave the Black Caps on 222 for two in the 36th over.
Vincent stayed in and a single off Dhaniram took him to a hundred off 115 balls with one six and nine fours. But two balls later Vincent chipped a return catch to off-spinner Davison.
McCullum, however, made sure the runs kept coming by lofting Sandher onto the roof of the stand at mid-wicket while Oram drove Cummins's last ball down the ground for six.
New Zealand 363 for 5 in 50 overs ( Lou Vincent 101, Fleming 66, McCullum 52 n o, Fulton 47, Oram 35 n o; Sandher 2 for 58, Davison 2 for 67, Samad 1 for 31) Vs Canada (yet to bat).