England made two changes from the side that drew the opening match of a four-Test series at Lord's.
Vaughan, playing his first Test in 18 months after being ruled out with knee and hamstring problems before a broken finger kept him out of the Lord's match, returned on his Yorkshire home ground in place of Owais Shah, twice out for single figure scores in the series opener.
Ryan Sidebottom replaced Yorkshire swing bowler Matthew Hoggard, who went off in his 11th over at Lord's with a thigh injury.
Nottinghamshire left-arm seamer Sidebottom, 29, was playing his second Test after a six-year gap since making his debut against Pakistan at Lord's in 2001.
His inclusion for this match saw him edge out James Anderson for the third seamer spot in a four-man attack and gave England some variety in what would otherwise have been an all right-arm pace line-up.
Sidebottom is the son of former Yorkshire seamer Arnie, who played one Test for England during the 1985 Ashes.
West Indies suffered a blow with senior batsman Shivnarine Chanderpaul, who top scored in their first innings at Lord's with 74, ruled out with what a team spokesman said was inflammatory tendonitis in his right knee.
He was replaced by Sylvester Joseph, the 28-year-old Antiguan making his fifth Test appearance, in what was West Indies' only change from the team that played at Lord's.
England: Andrew Strauss, Alastair Cook, Michael Vaughan (capt), Kevin Pietersen, Paul Collingwood, Ian Bell, Matt Prior (wk), Liam Plunkett, Stephen Harmison, Ryan Sidebottom and Monty Panesar.
West Indies: Chris Gayle, Daren Ganga, Devon Smith, Ramnaresh Sarwan (capt), Sylvester Joseph, Runako Morton, Dwayne Bravo, Denesh Ramdin (wk), Daren Powell, Jerome Taylor and Corey Collymore.
Umpires: Rudi Koertzen (RSA) and Asad Rauf (Pak) and Third umpire: Ian Gould (Eng)
Match referee: Alan Hurst (Aus)