Pace bowler Mashrafe Mortaza will be his deputy, BCB senior official Riazuddin Al Mamun said after a board meeting on Saturday.
Ashraful replaces Habibul Bashar, who stepped down as ODI skipper last month following series defeats to India in both forms of the game.
Bashar guided Bangladesh to 29 one-day victories in 69 matches and one win in 18 Tests.
He came under fire after making only 105 runs in the World Cup. Also his poor run against India in the recently concluded series did little to help to his cause.
Following a meeting on Saturday, the Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) executive committee also confirmed Shaun Williams, chief of national game development, as head coach for the tour against Sri Lanka later this.