Gough, who returned from Essex at the start of the season to captain his native county, took three wickets for four runs in only six deliveries to finish with six for 47 as Championship leaders Yorkshire bowled out hosts Kent for 292 on the third day of four at Tunbridge Wells.
But after an X-ray revealed Gough's injury, Kent recovered to 149 for one at stumps with ex-England batsman Robert Key 72 not out and former South Africa international Martin van Jaarsveld unbeaten on 56.
Sri Lanka great Muttiah Muralitharan took his 20th five-wicket haul in 23 Championship appearances as Lancashire eyed victory against Durham on Saturday's final day.
Lancashire reached 310 for seven in their second innings, a lead of 365 after Muralitharan took five for 95 in Durham's 312.
Elsewhere champions Sussex need eight wickets for victory on the final day at home to neighbours Hampshire with the visitors set an unlikely 500 to win.
Sussex captain Chris Adams scored a hundred but former Zimbabwe batsman Murray Goodwin fell for 99.
Worcestershire, who made a mammoth 701 for six declared against Surrey featuring captain Vikram Solanki's 232 and 124 from Australia's Phil Jaques, could yet force their first win of the season.
Surrey's Jon Batty scored 114 at New Road but the visitors still had to follow-on and now need a further 273 just to make Worcestershire bat again.
Basement club Glamorgan, bottom of the Second Division table, secured their first home win for three years with a 55-run victory against leaders Nottinghamshire at Swansea.
Spinner Dean Cosker took five wickets with Australian David Hussey top scoring in Nottinghamshire's second innings with 63.
South African seamer Charl Willoughby took five for 82 as Somerset beat Leicestershire by an innings and 259 runs at Taunton.
Somerset's huge 675 for five declared included 182 from Marcus Trescothick, still absenting himself from England duty on health grounds, and 114 from Australia's Cameron White.
Gloucestershire, who followed-on, managed a draw away to Derbyshire in a match where New Zealand's Hamish Marshall scored 120 in what was their eighth straight day of cricket.
Essex are on course for victory against Northamptonshire, who will need another 298 on the final day to make their opponents bat again.