At lunch, on the third day, West Indies were 211 for six with Chanderpaul 92 not out and Denesh Ramdin seven not out after rain had washed out Friday's first day before bad weather meant only three hours play was possible on Saturday.
West Indies, who'd collapsed to 55 for four, resumed on 132 for four with Chanderpaul unbeaten on 44 and Dwayne Bravo 43 not out.
Chanderpaul, who has batted for more than 15 hours this series, had been dropped on nine when Ian Bell at third slip failed to hold a head-high catch following the left-hander's miscontrolled drive against Matthew Hoggard.
And Bravo gave a tough chance on 25 when fast bowler Stephen Harmison saw a low drive hit back at him brush his fingertips as he followed through.
Chanderpaul, who'd done his best to keep England at bay in Old Trafford with 50 and 116 not out in a match the hosts won by 60 runs to go an unbeatable 2-0 up in the series, was once again proving a thorn in his opponents' side.
A cover-driven four against Hoggard and a single off the same bowler took Chanderpaul to his fifth consecutive Test fifty.
The 32-year-old Guyanese had then faced 99 balls with eight boundaries in more than two-and-a-half hours at the crease.
England wicket-keeper Matthew Prior then started to stand up to the stumps when Hoggard was bowling, in a bid to put pressure on the batsmen and, not for the first time, Bravo gave his innings away when well set.
The all-rounder had added just one to his overnight score when he inside-edged an attempted pull off Hoggard into his off-stump. Bravo's 44 had come off 97 balls with six fours, his stand with Chanderpaul worth 86.
However, West Indies were now 141 for five with new batsman Marlon Samuels set to play his first Test innings this trip having been drafted in as cover for Ramnaresh Sarwan following the captain's tour-ending shoulder injury sustained in West Indies record innings second Test defeat at Headingley.
Vaughan brought on Monty Panesar, who'd taken 10 wickets at Old Trafford, but on a pitch favouring the seamers the left-arm spinner was played comfortably enough by Chanderpaul and Samuels as they compiled a fifty stand in 84 balls.
However, their partnership ended when Samuels was bowled round his legs for 19 by Ryan Sidebottom.
The closest England came in Sunday's first session to dismissing Chanderpaul was via a run-out chance.
Chanderpaul, on 86, sprinted down the pitch after Samuels played Panesar into the covers. But Kevin Pietersen's throw to the bowler was a touch off target and, although Panesar gathered cleanly, a diving Chanderpaul got home.