England, set 110 to win and wrap up a 3-0 series triumph, were 24 for one with Andrew Strauss (10) and Michael Vaughan (five) at the crease. Alastair Cook was caught at second slip off Daren Powell for seven.
Left-arm spinner Monty Panesar helped bowl out West Indies in their second innings with five for 46, while fast bowler Steve Harmison cast aside news he that he needs a hernia operation by taking two for 92 including one 17-over spell.
The resilient Chanderpaul was the last man out - bowled by Panesar - for 70. He has passed 50 in his last six Test innings and has been West Indies' top scorer the last six times he has batted, dating back to the Pakistan tour in December.
Chanderpaul batted for 17 hours and 38 minutes until his dismissal and is the only batsman ever to have gone unbeaten for more than 1,000 minutes on three occasions.
He holds the world record with an unbeaten sequence of 1,513 minutes in 2002 against India.
The tenacious left-hander scored 116 not out in the second innings of the last Test at Old Trafford and made an unbeaten 136 in the first innings of this game. He averaged 148.66 in the series.
West Indies were still hanging on at lunch and harbouring slim hopes of escaping with a draw.
But when Dwayne Bravo miscued a lofted straight drive and was caught at mid-off to Panesar for 43, the innings gradually folded around the seemingly immovable Chanderpaul.
Marlon Samuels was caught at slip to Panesar, who then produced the classical left-arm spinner's delivery that pitched on middle stump and clipped off to bowl Denesh Ramdin.
Daren Powell was caught off Harmison, who then shattered Fidel Edwards' stumps. England were employing six slips to Edwards. Chanderpaul was bowled trying to slog sweep Panesar but the ball turned and kept low.
Panesar is the top wicket-taker in the series with 23.
The first day of the match on Friday was completely washed out by rain, while only 40 overs were possible on Saturday.
England won the second and third Tests at Headingley and Old Trafford, after the first match at Lord's was drawn.
Brief Scores (at tea, D-5):
West Indies Ist innings 287 and 222 (Chanderpaul 70, Gayle 52, Bravo 43; Panesar 5 for 46, Hoggard 3 for 28, Harmison 2 for 92) Vs England Ist innings 400 and 24 for 1 (Strauss 10 n o; Powell 1 for 11).