The India off-spinner has been overlooked for his country's forthcoming three-Test and seven one-day international tour of England.
Now, with Surrey's Pakistan all-rounder Azhar Mahmood set to play in September's World Twenty20 in South Africa, officials have decided to bring back Harbhajan to The Oval where he played for the county in 2005.
Surrey are second bottom in the first division of the County Championship and have yet to win in the tournament this season.
"Let's be honest, Surrey haven't had the start to the season that we would like," said cricket manager Alan Butcher.
"We feel that a world-class spinner is an important part of improving our performance in the second half of the year," the former Surrey and England batsman added.
"Harbhajan is a great wicket taker, and with the club expecting Azhar Mahmood to play for Pakistan in the Twenty20 World Cup later this year, we no longer have to worry about a possible gap in our line up from August onwards.
"Azhar has made a great contribution to the club, and its clear that international duty is a distinct possibility for him later this year, so we want to be prepared."
Harbhajan said: "This is obviously a great opportunity for me personally, and I can't wait to get out there and play some great cricket for Surrey. I want to make every performance count, with both bat and ball, and really look forward to catching up with my old team-mates soon."
The 26-year-old bowler, nicknamed 'The Turbanator' has taken 238 wickets in 57 Tests at an average of just under 30 apiece.