The 54-year-old, known as 'Big Bird', beat marketing executive Calvin Hope by 40 votes on Thursday.
"I'm honoured to be elected to lead Barbados' cricket forward," Garner told reporters.
"Barbados cricket plays a significant part in West Indies cricket and... we want to return our game to the glory days."
Garner will now sit on the executive panel of the West Indies Cricket Board.
During his international career from 1977 to 1987 Garner was a member of the all-conquering West Indies team. He took 259 wickets at an average of 20.97 in 58 Tests. He also took 146 one day wickets in 98 matches.