The Lancashire and England all-rounder, who is also in the World Twenty20 squad, has just returned to action after a three-month absence following a third ankle operation.
Ravi Bopara and Chris Tremlett are also included with Jonathan Trott, Michael Yardy and Liam Plunkett shown the door.
The 14-man squad could change for the final games, which may mean the return of Michael Vaughan and Andrew Strauss.
Test skipper Vaughan has been left out of the squad since quitting as one-day captain to allow his successor Paul Collingwood time to bed in, while opener Strauss is battling to regain his best form.
Chairman of selectors David Graveney said: "It leaves the door open to Vaughany and Andrew Strauss and other names you might think are missing from the list."
Graveney added that Flintoff could still sit out some of the seven matches if he needed more time to get up to full fitness after only returning to action last week.
"We will continue to monitor Andrew's rehabilitation from his ankle injury closely in the run-up to the tournament against India," he said.
"His rehab is continuing. If it is necessary for him to play more domestic cricket, we'll go down that road. There is no need to cut corners."
The series starts at the Rose Bowl on 21 August.
Paul Collingwood (captain), James Anderson , Ian Bell, Ravinder Bopara, Stuart Broad, Alistair Cook, Andrew Flintoff, Mascarenhas, Monty Panesar, Kevin Pietersen, Matt Prior (wk), Owais Shah, Ryan Sidebottom and Chris Tremlett.