Fast bowler Shaun Tait has recovered from injury to return to the team which will play India in the first of four Tests at the Melbourne Cricket Ground starting December 26.
Cricket Australia chairman Andrew Hilditch said Hogg's performance in domestic competition and his consistent play in one-day internationals had secured his place in the team.
"Brad deserves the opportunity to once again represent Australia in Test cricket," he said in a statement.
MacGill, who has struggled with various injuries as he attempts to secure a permanent place in the team following the retirement of leg-spinner Shane Warne, is out for at least a month after undergoing hand surgery.
Hilditch said the final side would be decided once the conditions at the MCG were inspected.
India's team arrived in Australia on Tuesday for the four Test series.
Australia: Ricky Ponting (captain), Adam Gilchrist (vice-captain), Phil Jaques, Matthew Hayden, Michael Hussey, Andrew Symonds, Mitchell Johnson, Stuart Clark, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Brad Hogg and Michael Clarke.