Harbhajan Singh (30*) and Kumble (23*) frustrated the Australian bowling attack, taking India past 400.
Earlier, resuming at the overnight score of 309/5, Dhoni was the first to be dismissed, after the India stumper played a full-bloodied cut off Jhonson straight to Symonds at deep covers. Overnight centurion Tendulkar (153) continued his good work for some time before an ill-timed hook off Lee undid this genius.
However India thrived on the 8th wicket partnership between Harbhajan and Kumble. The lower order pair, having beneifited from a combination of good batting and a slice of luck, shared an undefeated 46-run stand to take the score past the 400 mark.
India put on runs at a healthy rate throughout the morning session, and despite the early dismissal of MS Dhoni for 16, Tendulkar looked in command as he steered the Indian total above 350. The 'Little Master' reached 150 the same way he brought up his century on day one, cracking a cover drive to the boundary off the bowling of Lee
On the opening day Tendulkar shook off a personal hoodoo at Adelaide Oval to score his 39th Test hundred and keep alive his side's hopes of squaring the series.
After captain Anil Kumble won the toss and elected to bat, the tourists were 309 for five at stumps, with Tendulkar undefeated on 124 and Mahendra Singh Dhoni on six.
Several of his team-mates squandered promising starts, but Tendulkar was rarely troubled by the Australian bowlers.
The 34-year-old went into the match with just 122 runs at 20.33 in his three previous visits to the ground, but it was clear he was on a mission from the time he strode to the crease to replace Rahul Dravid (18).
Brief Scores (at lunch, D-2):
India Ist innings 405/7 (Tendulkar 153, Sehwag 63, Laxman 51, Harbhajan 30 n o, Kumble 23 n o; Lee 3 for 89, Johnson 3 for 104) Vs Australia.