Langeveldt, who has played six Tests, replaces in-form Andre Nel a veteran of 34 Tests, while slow left-armer Paul Harris returns after missing the two Tests in Bangladesh because of minor surgery, the selectors announced on Tuesday
Fellow left-armer Robin Peterson, who took his first five-wicket haul against Bangladesh in Chittagong, retains his place ahead of off-spinner Johan Botha and will be back-up to Harris.
The 14-man squad includes six non-white players thanks to the inclusion of Peterson and Langeveldt but convenor of selectors Joubert Strydom was unavailable to comment on whether the selectors' original choices had been approved by Cricket South Africa (CSA) president Norman Arendse.
South African cricket was mired in controversy last month when Arendse refused to approve the squad originally chosen for the Bangladesh tour, which included only four black players before Peterson replaced Harris upon his late withdrawal.
That squad was eventually announced by CSA chief executive Gerald Majola, leading to conflict between him and Arendse.
This was resolved only when a CSA extraordinary general council meeting called on the two officials to resolve their differences and work out a strategy together to make the South African team more racially representative.
South Africa will play Tests in Chennai, Ahmedabad and Kanpur on their Indian tour which starts on March 26.
Graeme Smith (capt), Ashwell Prince, Hashim Amla, Mark Boucher (wk), AB de Villiers, JP Duminy, Paul Harris, Jacques Kallis, Charl Langeveldt, Neil McKenzie, Morne Morkel, Makhaya Ntini, Robin Peterson and Dale Steyn.