Andre Nel, who was controversially left out for Langeveldt to conform with Cricket South Africa's transformation policy, was again overlooked. Zondeki's selection maintained the target of six players of colour in the 14-man squad.
The SA Cricketers' Association meanwhile condemned political interference in team selection which it said could cause South Africa to lose two of its premier fast bowlers, Langeveldt and Nel.
"Charl Langeveldt's request to be removed from the squad to tour India is the desperate unhappiness of a player who knows that he has been selected for this tour for quota reasons," said Tony Irish, chief executive of SACA.
"Charl spoke to both (Cricket SA chief executive) Gerald Majola and to me yesterday to say that he was so upset that he did not feel that he could give his best for South Africa on the tour under these circumstances".
A SACA statement quoted Langeveldt as saying: "As players we all have a good idea of when we are clearly in the running for selection and when we aren't. You just have to look at Andre's Test record compared to mine and the fact that he has been part of all the Test match plans while I haven't played a Test match for two years.
"I have always fought for a place in the team but I don't want to be put there because of my colour. Up to now I have been very happy in my role in the ODI team and I know my value there. I'm quite upset by this now and I'm going to need a bit of time to consider my future."
The future of Nel is also uncertain.
"I'm as upset for Langes as I am for myself", said Nel.
"We are good teammates and I have a lot of respect for him. We are both passionate about playing for South Africa and neither of us deserves to feel like this. It is hard to just shrug it all off."
Irish said: "Any form of veto, interference or involvement in the selection of the Proteas by anyone who is not a selector should be abolished.
The Players' Association recently made that recommendation to Cricket South Africa's transformation review committee relating to selection of the Proteas team. The players believe in the goals of transformation but all of them, black and white, are adamant that this should not be achieved by interfering in the selection of the national team.
"South Africa could be in the process of losing two of its best cricketers," said Irish.
"Surely it's time to realise that the selectors must be allowed to get on with selection of the team."
Zondeki, 25, played the most recent of his five Test matches in 2005 but was the leading wicket-taker in South African first-class cricket this season with 62 wickets at an average of 19.16.
He was a contender for the recent tour of Bangladesh but suffered an ankle injury in a car accident.
"Monde has shown outstanding form this season to establish himself as the leading bowler in the domestic game. His form for the South African A side has also been outstanding," said selection convener Joubert Strydom. "He has made a good recovery from injury and is back to full match fitness."
Zondeki will play for English county Warwickshire as an overseas signing this year.
The South African team leave for a three-Test tour Friday.