The match had been scheduled for Shaw Park from March 29 to 31, but it has become the latest victim of the Caribbean's erratic airline services.
"The planned tour match has been cancelled because of flight problems," said a terse, three-paragraph statement from the West Indies Cricket Board (WICB).
"The WICB apologises for any inconveniences caused. Sri Lanka will use the opportunity to do net practice at Shaw Park."
Sri Lanka would have preferred the three-day match to fine tune their preparations for the second Test, starting on April 3 at Queen's Park Oval in Port-of-Spain, the capital of the island of Trinidad.
The visitors lead the series 1-0, after they completed a 121-run victory in the opening Test on Wednesday in Georgetown.
Sri Lanka are eyeing their first Test series victory in the Caribbean on their third attempt.