Symonds suffered the injury while bowling late on the fourth day of the third Test last week.
And while he was able to resume running at the weekend, he will not be risked for the match in St Vincent after being restricted to light duties at training.
It is the first time the 33-year-old has struggled with such a back complaint, but the injury is not considered to be serious, with Symonds expected to at least take some part in the five-game one-day series.
Wicketkeeper Brad Haddin, meanwhile, has been named in the XI after resting his broken finger in Friday's Twenty20 international, with all-rounders Shane Watson and Cameron White both included for their first one-day internationals in more than a year.
Shaun Marsh, the son of former Test opener Geoff Marsh, has also been named for his ODI debut, with the big hitting West Australian expected to partner Watson at the top of the batting order.
Stuart Clark is the bowler to miss out, with Brett Lee, Mitchell Johnson and Nathan Bracken all selected, along with all-rounder James Hopes.
The Windies will be bolstered by the return of explosive opener and skipper Chris Gayle from a groin injury for the match, but vice-captain Ramnaresh Sarwan remains in considerable doubt because of his groin concern, Fox Sports reports.
Australia will return to the top of the world one-day rankings if they win in St Vincent, with South Africa currently holding a slender lead over Ricky Ponting's side in the official ICC ratings.
Games two and three of the series are in Grenada with the final two matches to be played in St Kitts.
Australia's players will wear pink ribbons and use bats with pink handles in honour of Jane McGrath, the wife of former Test fast bowler Glenn McGrath, who lost her 11-year battle with cancer on Sunday.