The home side made 254 for eight from 50 overs after being sent in to bat in the match, the first of three in what was to be a warm-up for the Champions Trophy in Pakistan before that tournament was postponed due to security concerns.
In reply, Bangladesh mustered just 74, all out in the 28th over.
Left-armer Mitchell Johnson did the early damage for the hosts with 2-10 from six overs, while leg-spinner Cameron White wrapped up the tail with 3-5 from just 1.4 overs.
Only three Bangladesh batsmen made double figures, with opener Tamim Iqbal top-scoring with 21, and their best partnership just 16.
Earlier, youngster Shaun Marsh anchored the Australian total with 76 at the top of the order, while fellow West Australian Mike Hussey made a typically industrious 82.
However, Australia's effort with the bat was overshadowed by the absence of star all-rounder Andrew Symonds, who was sent home for a disciplinary breach and won't play any part in the series.
Cricket Australia officials said they would reveal the reasons for Symonds' departure after the match, but he was believed to have missed a team meeting because he had gone fishing.
Symonds was also suspended for two matches in 2005 after a drinking binge before Australia suffered its only loss to Bangladesh in one-day internationals.
His absence, with squad member Shane Watson again struck down by injury and veteran opener Matthew Hayden ruled out as he recovers from an Achilles problem, left Australia with just the bare minimum of 11 players available for the match.
Australia were also without captain Ricky Ponting and paceman Brett Lee.
As a result, Tasmanian seamer Brett Greeves was gifted his international debut, with the Australians expected to name a replacement for Symonds.
Geeves capitalised by claiming 2-11 with the ball.
Marsh, the son of former Australian opener and vice-captain Geoff Marsh, looked on target for his maiden international century when left-arm spinner Abdur Razzak slipped one through his defences and rattled the stumps.
In just his sixth one-day international, the emerging West Australian batsman showed great application on a slow deck more conducive to singles than boundaries.
He survived a confident appeal for caught behind from the bowling of Shakib Al Hasan on 25, and hit four boundaries in his 106-ball knock.
Hussey faced 87 balls, hitting five fours and one six.