Mithali has been made the skipper of the 14-woman squad with Harmanpreet Kaur as her deputy.
This time, ICC World T20 men's and women's tournaments will be held simultaneously in Sri Lanka.
The Board of Control for Cricket in India's (BCCI) selection committee met on Monday and announced the squad.
The men's event kicks off on September 18 while the women's matches start on September 26. India's first match in women's section is on September 29 against England.
India women's squad: Mithali Raj (captain), Harmanpreet Kaur (vice-captain), Sulakshana Naik, Jhulan Goswami, Poonam Raut, Gouhar Sultana, Ekta Bisht, Archana Das, N. Niranjana, Mona Meshram, Shubhalaxmi Sharma, Anuja Patil, Roshanara Parvin, Amita Sharma.