The Indians first restricted West Indies to 263 for five and then overhauled the target with 23 balls to spare to lift yet another ODI trophy at home.
Dhawan stole the limelight with an attacking 119 that came off 95 balls, his fifth ODI hundred, while Yuvraj Singh notched up a 74-ball 55 to seal the issue for the home side at the Green Park Stadium which was hosting an international game after a gap of nearly four years.
It was a welcome return to form for Yuvraj, who cautiously put together 129 runs for the third wicket with Dhawan to set the platform for the easy win.
West Indies score 263/5
The trio of Kieran Powell, Marlon Samuels and Darren Bravo struck half-centuries to propel West Indies to a challenging 263 for five against India in the series-deciding third cricket ODI at the Green Park stadium, here today.
Powell (70) carried on his good form from the last match and registered his second fifty of the series.
Together with Samuels (71), he shared a 117-run second-wicket partnership to lay the foundation for West Indies after the visitors were put into bat by India skipper MS Dhoni.
Towards the end, Darren Bravo (51 not out) and Darren Sammy (37 not out) played aggressively to take West Indies past the 260-run mark.
Comfortably placed at 137 for one at one stage, West Indies looked set for a big score but India staged a comeback with quick wickets to restrict West Indies to the manageable score.
For the hosts, off-spinner Ravichandran Ashwin was the pick of the bowlers with figures of two for 45 from his quota of 10 overs.
Dhoni's decision to bowl first after winning the toss did not yield the desired result as his bowlers could pick up just one wicket before Powell and Samuels joined hands to take West Indies forward.
Opener Johnson Charles (11) failed yet again when Bhuvneshwar Kumar went through his defence in the fifth over with a perfect inswinger leaving West Indies at 20 for one.
But thereafter Powell and Samuels got together and played sensibly, mixing caution with aggression to stitch a century stand for the second wicket and lay the foundation for a big total.
Both Powell and Samuels were cautious in their approach as they brought up the West Indies fifty in 11.3 overs.
Both the batsmen were content to see off the new ball in the morning. The duo kept rotating the strike with ones and twos and punished loose deliveries that came their way.
But once they managed to set in their eyes, both Powell and Samuels played freely and in the process brought up their 50-run stand in 53 balls.
Samuels finally opened up and welcomed off-spinner R Ashwin with a huge six over long-on as West Indies reached the 100-run mark in 21.2 overs.
Dhoni won the toss and chose to field against West Indies in the series-decider.
Both teams are unchanged from the previous game. Dhoni made the decision to bowl first to make use of the moisture in the pitch with 9 AM start at Green Park Stadium.
India had won the first ODI by six wickets in Kochi and West Indies levelled the series in Visakhapatnam by taking the game by two wickets.
India: Rohit Sharma, Shikhar Dhawan, Virat Kohli, Yuvraj Singh, Suresh Raina, MS Dhoni (captain and wicketkeeper), Ravindra Jadeja, R Ashwin, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Mohit Sharma, Mohammed Shami.
West Indies: Kieran Powell, Johnson Charles (wicketkeeper), Darren Bravo, Marlon Samuels, Lendl Simmons, Dwayne Bravo (captain), Darren Sammy, Ravi Rampaul, Jason Holder, Sunil Narine, Veerasammy Permaul.