England had started the day on 352/9, trailing India by 105 runs in the first innings and in the first session of play Root and Anderson had completely taken the advantage away from the visitors and pushed the home team into the lead.
Just after lunch, Anderson (81) was dismissed by Bhuvneshwar Kumar to end the world record stand of 198 runs. England finished with 496 all out in 144.5 overs, a lead of 39. Root remained unbeaten on 154.
Root and Anderson had a century partnership and went on to register England's highest ever 10th wicket association in Test history. The pair broke a 111-year record. They continued and set a new world record, going past the 163-run mark of Ashton Agar and Phil Hughes (Australia) at the same venue in 2013.
The previous best was 130 by Tip Foster and Wilfred Rhodes against Australia in Sydney in 1903.
Also, this match saw both teams' 10th wicket partnership crossing the 100-run mark. This has happened for the first time in 2,128 Tests.
Also, Anderson registered his highest Test score, scoring his maiden half century in the five-day game.
Here are the records set today at Trent Bridge
# Century partnership for the 10th wicket by both teams in the same Test. India - 111 (Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Mohammed Shami). England (Joe Root and James Anderson)
# 198 - Highest 10th wicket partnership in Test history - Root and Anderson. Previous best 163 (Agar/Hughes)
# Highest 10th wicket partnership for England in Tests. Previous best 130 (Tip Foster and Wilfred Rhodes Vs Australia in Sydney in 1903)
# Most innings taken to register a half century in Tests. Anderson got to his maiden fifty in his 131st innings
# 81 - Highest Test score by a number 11 batsman for England. Anderson beat the previous record of 59* (John Snow)
# First time in history of Test cricket that number 11 batsmen from both teams have scored half centuries. Mohammed Shami had scored 51 not out