The 38-year-old Kallis, who had retired from Test cricket last year, decided to quit international cricket after realising that participating in next year's 50-over World Cup was a "bridge too far". His last international match was against Sri Lanka on July 12 (ODI) where he scored just 4 runs. He made his international debut in 1995.
"I realized in Sri Lanka that my dream of playing in a World Cup was a bridge too far," Kallis said in a statement.
"I just knew on that tour that I was done. The squad that was in Sri Lanka is an amazing one and I believe they have a good chance of bringing the trophy home in March.
"I would like to thank Cricket South Africa, the team, the team sponsors, my sponsors, the fans and all the people who have been involved in my career. It has been an amazing journey.
Kallis, however, will play in Twenty20 cricket. He will turn up for Sydney Thunder and may play in the Indian Premier League (IPL) next year for Kolkata Knight Riders.
"I am not retiring from all cricket as I have a two-year contract with the Sydney Thunder and, if possible, to help the Kolkata Knight Riders defend the IPL title we won earlier this year," he said.
Kallis played in 166 Tests, 328 ODIs and 25 T20Is. He has scored over 25,000 international runs and has 577 wickets.
Cricket South Africa (CSA) Chief Executive, Haroon Lorgat, saidd: "South Africa has been blessed with one of the world's greatest cricketing talents in Jacques Kallis. He is undeniably one of the greatest players ever to have graced our wonderful game and he has certainly been the Proteas standard-bearer of excellence for nearly two decades.
"He has played a huge part in making cricket a truly national sport of winners and, in doing so, contributed so much to the important process of nation building. He is a true professional and it has been an absolute privilege to have worked with him both as Convener of selectors and now as Chief Executive."
"To say that we will miss him on the playing field is stating the obvious. Each one of us from this day on will treasure the many fond memories of his awesome career. On behalf of CSA and all our stakeholders, I would like to sincerely thank Jacques for his huge contribution to the game of cricket and wish him only the best as he moves on from the international playing arena."